Glossary of terms

Acid fast bacilli
Bacteria which, having been stained with a dye, retain their colour in acid alcohol. Used as a technique for microscopic detection of mycobacteria.
Active case-finding
Systematically identifying people with active or latent TB using tests, examinations or other procedures.
CE-IVD
European Conformity (Conformité Européenne)-in vitro diagnostic
Cost-effectiveness analysis
An economic study design in which consequences of different interventions are measured using a single outcome, usually in natural units (e.g. life-years gained, cases detected, deaths averted).
CXR
chest X-ray
DALY
Disability-Adjusted Life Year
DR-TB
drug-resistant TB
DST
drug susceptibility testing
EPTB
extrapulmonary TB - active TB disease in any site other than the lungs or tracheobronchial tree
EQA
external quality assessment
FLQ
fluoroquinolones, a collective term for a set of second-line TB drugs
GRADE
Grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation
HBC
high burden country
ICER
Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, a measure of the additional cost of a health care activity per unit of benefit (usually a QALY)
LMIC
Low- and middle-income country
MDR-TB
multidrug resistant TB, TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin
NAAT
nucleic acid amplification test
NGO
nongovernmental organization
NTM
non-tuberculous mycobacteria
NTP
National TB Programme
POC
point of care
PTB
pulmonary TB
QALY
Quality adjusted life year, an index of survival that is adjusted to account for the person’s quality of life during this time. QALYs incorporate changes in both quantity and quality of life
RCT
Randomised controlled trial, a comparative study in which participants are randomly allocated to intervention and control groups, and prospectively followed up to examine differences in outcomes between the groups
RDT
rapid diagnostic test
Reference standard
An accepted standard, for example for a test, against which other interventions can be compared.
RR-TB
rifampicin-resistant TB
SLID
second-line injectable drug
SRL
Supranational Reference Laboratory
SSM
sputum smear microscopy
STR
streptomycin
TPP
Target Product Profile
XDR-TB
extensively drug resistant TB